Complete Guide to Rugby Rules and Regulations

Understanding rugby rules is essential for new players and enthusiasts eager to follow or partake in one of the most exhilarating sports in the world. This beginner’s guide to rugby rules is designed to unveil the complexity behind the official rugby rules, promoting safety and enjoyment on the pitch. Through World Rugby’s Training and Education standards, including the pivotal Rugby Ready programme, participants are equipped with the knowledge to engage in the game while minimizing the risk of injury.

As a sport beloved for its physical intensity and strategic depth, rugby combines raw athletic prowess with a strict adherence to rules that ensure fair play and safety. Through this initiation into rugby rules, individuals gain an appreciation for the game’s fundamentals, evolving from novices into informed players and spectators. Whether it’s understanding the intricacies of scoring or the crucial roles of different player positions, this guide serves as your comprehensive resource.

Key Takeaways

  • The importance of rugby safety and preparedness through World Rugby’s Rugby Ready programme.
  • An overview of rugby rules helps reduce injury risks and promotes an enjoyable experience.
  • A deeper understanding of rugby rules and regulations for new players and fans.
  • Insights into how the beginner’s guide to rugby rules can serve as a stepping stone in the learning process.
  • The utilization of official rugby rules by World Rugby to maintain the integrity and welfare of the sport.

Introduction to the Sport of Rugby

Rugby, a game that commands the attention and passion of millions around the globe, is not just a test of physical strength and stamina but also a showcase of strategic depth and team cohesion. At its core, rugby is governed by two main sets of regulations: rugby union rules and rugby league rules. Although the two variants share common elements, they each bring a distinctive flavor to the sport, appealing to a diverse audience.

For newcomers and seasoned fans alike, understanding the rugby laws can be comparable to learning a new language. This article endeavors to serve as an accessible interpreter, tasked with rugby rules explained in a clear and methodical fashion. To facilitate a comprehensive grasp, it is imperative to delve into the specifics that distinguish rugby’s versions, intricacies, and the general framework that underpins this captivating sport.

  • Key differences between rugby’s discipline: Union vs. League.
  • An exploration into the field of play, player equipment, and match duration.
  • Deep dive into match commencements, including kickoffs and drop goals.
  • The role of set pieces, such as scrums and lineouts, in game strategy.
  • A look at scoring methods and the pivotal importance of tries, conversions, and penalty kicks.
  • Examination of penalities, infractions, and the critical offside laws.

The crux of the rugby experience lies within its regulation set, be it the rugby union rules characterized by fifteen-player teams and scrums consolidating eight members, or the rugby league rules with thirteen-player sides and a distinct tackling system. These frameworks form the bedrock upon which safety, fairness, and the spirit of competition are carefully built and maintained.

By strengthening their understanding of rugby laws and mechanics, participants and spectators can more fully appreciate the nuances and expertise demonstrated on the field, making every ruck, maul, and try an instance of exceptional sportsmanship and excitement. It’s not merely a game; it’s an elegantly choreographed battle of wills, where knowledge and strategy often tip the scales in favor of the astute.

“Rugby is a game all about teamwork and strategy, with each player understanding their role within the rugby laws that guide and define the game.”

Stay attuned as we continue to decode the exciting world of rugby, from the hallowed traditions of the union to the fast-paced action of the league. As we proceed, the previously impenetrable veil of rugby’s regulations will lift, revealing a sport that is as intellectually rigorous as it is physically demanding.

Objectives and Scoring in Rugby

The very essence of rugby revolves around the accumulation of points through various scoring methods, orchestrated within the bounds of the rugby points system. As teams face-off on the field, their prime aim is the execution of a strategic dance that leads to multiple scoring opportunities.

How to Score a Try

Central to the action is the coveted try in rugby, a moment that not only surges excitement amongst the spectators but also contributes significantly to the scoreboard. Achieving this feat requires a player to ground the ball into the opponent’s in-goal area, a maneuver that earns the team a rewarding five points.

Conversions, Penalty Kicks, and Drop Goals Explained

In the aftermath of a try, teams have the opportunity to garner additional points through a conversion kick. This is a critical play, executed from a point in line with where the try was scored and can add an extra two points to the team’s tally.

Yet, scoring in rugby extends beyond tries and conversions. Teams can exploit penalty kicks and drop goals, both rewarding three points each, to inch ahead or make crucial comebacks within a game. Penalty kicks come as a consequence of the opposition’s infractions, while drop goals are performed during the live action, requiring a player to adeptly kick the ball just as it rebounds off the ground.

Scoring Method Points Awarded Description
Try 5 Ball grounded in opponent’s in-goal area
Conversion Kick 2 After a try, kicked over the crossbar between the goalposts
Penalty Kick 3 Awarded for opposition infractions, kicked over the crossbar
Drop Goal 3 Kicked as the ball bounces off the ground during open play

Rugby Field Dimensions and Required Equipment

When stepping onto the rugby pitch, players encounter a playing field meticulously defined to create a balanced and strategic game environment. The standard rugby field size is pivotal to the flow of the game, and the proper equipment is critical to the safety and effectiveness of players engaging in this sport.

Understanding the Rugby Pitch Layout

The rugby field is a precisely measured rectangle, typically 100 meters in length and 70 meters in width. Not only does the open field provide the stage for the drama of the game, but the in-goal areas, extending a minimum of 10 meters deep, serve as the proverbial end zones where tries are scored. The rugby field size adheres to these dimensions to balance the need for space to execute plays with the demand for close-quarters physical play, an integral aspect of the sport.

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Essential Gear for Rugby Players

Rugby player equipment plays a major role in safety on the field. Primary among the required gear is the mouthguard, a crucial piece that protects teeth and gums during the intense physical contact inherent to the game. While some players may opt not to use them, scrum caps provide an additional layer of protection, especially useful during scrums and tackles. Footwear, too, is specific; rugby boots with firm studs or cleats are essential for adequate traction on the grassy terrain. Finally, the rugby ball itself, with its distinctive oval shape, represents the center of play and is typically crafted from leather or durable synthetic materials.

Equipment Type Usage Material
Mouthguard Protection for teeth and gums Thermoplastic or Silicone
Scrum Cap Optional headgear for protection Foam padded, cloth-covered
Rugby Boots Footwear for traction Leather or Synthetic Uppers, Rubber or Metal Studs
Rugby Ball Central to gameplay Leather or Synthetic Material

Team Composition and Player Positions

Essential to the structure of a rugby match is the dynamic interplay between two groups of specialized roles: the forwards and the backs. Together, these 15-player squads combine brute strength, speed, and strategic acumen, ensuring their team competes effectively within the framework of the game’s rules and regulations. Let’s delve into the particularities of each role and how they coalesce to drive a team’s play on the rugby field.

The Roles of Forwards and Backs

Integral to the core strategy of rugby, forwards and backs perform distinct rugby team roles that are crucial for the course of the game. Forwards, donning jerseys numbered one through eight, are the muscle of the team, engaging in the game’s more physical aspects, such as scrummaging, lineouts, and mauls. Conversely, the backs, indicated by numbers nine to fifteen, bring agility and pace to the pitch, focusing on breaking the defensive line and spearheading the attack with the goal of scoring.

Key Responsibilities of Specific Rugby Positions

Understanding rugby position duties is essential for grasping how the intricacies of team strategies unfold during a match. Each individual position boasts specific responsibilities that contribute to a team’s overall performance and approach. Below is a snapshot of these duties:

Position Number Duties
Props 1 and 3 Support the hooker in scrums; maintain stability
Hooker 2 Secures the ball in scrums; throws it in lineouts
Locks 4 and 5 Primary lineout targets; key to mauls and rucks
Flankers 6 and 7 Harass opposition’s ball carriers; support in rucks and mauls
Number Eight 8 Controls the ball at the back of the scrum; links forwards and backs
Scrum-half 9 Distributes the ball from rucks/scrums; initiates plays
Fly-half 10 Directs the team’s attack; makes strategic kicks
Wings 11 and 14 Utilizes speed to finish attacks; defends opposition’s wingers
Centers 12 and 13 Combines strength and speed for breaking lines; defensive coordination
Fullback 15 Last line of defense; counterattacks from deep positions

Each rugby position served on the field is more than just a number on the back of a jersey; it is a set of tactical duties that, when performed correctly, can lead to the successful execution of plays and, ultimately, to scoring opportunities. Whether partaking as a hard-hitting forward or a nimble back, players operate with the collective objective of pushing their team toward victory. Thus, recognizing player positions in rugby is central to appreciating the skill and precision involved in this spirited contest.

Understanding the Duration of a Rugby Match

The tempo of a rugby match is dictated by the clock, with the rugby match length playing a crucial role in the strategy and endurance of players. Regularly, a rugby encounter unfolds over two halves, each lasting 40 minutes. These structured rugby halves are separated by a halftime interval, typically stretching for 10 minutes. This intermission provides teams the opportunity for rest and strategy adjustments, critical for the second half’s contest.

However, the match duration can extend beyond the conventional 80-minute gameplay in certain scenarios. Extra time rules come into effect when a definitive outcome is required, such as in playoff matches or knockout stages of tournaments. In these cases, additional periods of play are utilized to break the deadlock, ensuring a winner is crowned by the match’s conclusion.

Extra Time Rules in Rugby

Extra Time Format: Should the scores be level at the end of regular time, the game advances into extra time, which comprises two periods of 10 minutes each. Between these two stints, a short interlude allows teams a chance to regroup before resuming their pursuit of victory.

When the match demands a sudden closure, and if the deadlock persists post extra time, a ‘sudden death’ approach may come into play. This high-stakes scenario extends the match for a further 10 minutes, in which the first team to score any points emerges triumphant.

If both sides remain stubbornly equal following ‘sudden death,’ the contest proceeds to a definitive kicking competition. Here, accuracy and composure of the kickers are tested until one team outperforms the other, thus deciding the match.

Below is a detailed breakdown of the time regulations for a rugby match, providing clarity on the flow and potential extensions of the game:

Match Segment Duration Notes
First Half 40 minutes Followed by a 10-minute halftime break
Second Half 40 minutes Concludes the standard match duration
Extra Time – Period 1 10 minutes Follows a short interlude after second half
Extra Time – Period 2 10 minutes Break before ‘sudden death’, if required
‘Sudden Death’ 10 minutes Last resort for decisive score
Kicking Competition Variable The final tie-breaker if scores level post ‘sudden death’

The structure and extension of rugby match times are crafted to not only determine a definitive winner but also to encapsulate the dramatic essence and unpredictable nature of the sport. Whether during the regular halves or in the nerve-wracking extra time, each minute contributes to the unfolding legacy of the game and the stories of those who play it.

Commencing the Game: Kickoff and Drop Goals

The initiation of a rugby match is a pivotal moment, setting the tone for the intense competition to follow. The rugby kickoff marks not just the start of the rugby match but symbolizes the unleashing of strategies devised and honed by teams and coaches alike. This formal commencement is a sight to behold, as one team propels the ball with precision and strength, following a coin toss to decide the initial control of the game. The kick must travel at least 10 meters forward, providing a fair opportunity for both teams to vie for possession and underscoring the sport’s ethos of equitable play.

As the match unfolds, players may opt for a drop goal in rugby, a skillful maneuver where a player strategically drops the ball to the ground before delivering a kick just as it bounces. This play, if successful, can add three crucial points to the team’s score. The ability to execute a drop goal in rugby during open play demonstrates not only technical prowess but situational awareness, exploiting brief moments within the fray to secure an advantage.

  • Traditionally, a kickoff begins the game and after every score.
  • Teams meticulously plan the kickoff to secure possession or tactically position the opposition.
  • A drop goal may be attempted anytime during open play and requires both precision and poise.

Both the kickoff and the drop goal are testament to rugby’s rich blend of finesse and force, choreographed on a field that bears witness to human athleticism and strategic depth. As players lock horns and fans watch with bated breath, these initial plays often echo throughout the match, leaving an indelible mark on the game’s outcome.

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Rugby Rules: The Backbone of the Game

At the heart of rugby lies a comprehensive set of official rugby rules designed to ensure the sport is played fairly and safely. These rules serve as the foundation for all action on the field, providing guidance on everything from how points are scored to how infractions are penalized. A grasp of the basic rugby rules is crucial for anyone hoping to understand or participate in the game.

The rugby rules and regulations are governed by World Rugby, the international body entrusted with maintaining the game’s standards globally. The laws they set forth cater to various aspects of play, fostering an environment that emphasizes sportsmanship and player welfare while maintaining the integrity of the contest.

Rugby’s structure is built upon laws that allow the game to be an entertaining, free-flowing contest. From the way the ball is played to how tackles are made, the rules are in place to ensure continuous action and fairness across the board.

An intriguing element of rugby’s laws is the advantage rule, which allows play to continue after an infringement if the non-offending team gains benefit from the situation. Such principles highlight the game’s spirit of continuous play and the drive for an engaging contest free from unnecessary stoppages.

Effective enforcement and understanding of the basic rugby rules are crucial for the game’s flow. Officials and players alike must exhibit a comprehensive knowledge of these parameters to ensure the safety and enjoyment of all participants. Here are some key areas covered by the official rugby rules:

  • Method of Scoring: Tries, conversions, penalty kicks, and drop goals.
  • Gameplay Duration: The match’s structure including halves and potential extra time.
  • Starting the Game: The kickoff and criteria for a fair catch.
  • In-Game Contests: Scrums, lineouts, rucks, and mauls.
  • Player Conduct: The tackle, offside, high tackles, and other infringements.
  • Player Safety: Equipment requirements and protocols for safe play.

While these rules form the skeletal framework of the sport, it’s the players and their adherence to these regulations that bring the game to life. With these guidelines in place, rugby continues to thrive as a sport that offers equal parts physicality and strategic depth, captivating fans and players around the world.

To ensure adherence to the laws, rigorous training and certifications, such as the Rugby Ready programme, are encouraged by World Rugby. These educational resources aim to prepare individuals for both participation and officiation within the sport, fostering a greater appreciation and understanding of the game’s complexities.

Key Components of Official Rugby Rules
  • Scoring: Clarity on how different actions add points during the game.
  • Match Duration: Defined periods of play to manage the ebb and flow of the game.
  • Player Safety: Rules ensuring the health and well-being of participants.
  • Conduct: Standards guiding player behavior and sportsmanship.
  • Advantage Rule: Balancing fairness with uninterrupted gameplay.

In summary, the rugby rules and regulations are more than guidelines—they are the bedrock upon which the sport’s enduring legacy is built. For fans and aspiring athletes eager to engage with rugby, knowledge of these rules is the first step towards deep and rewarding involvement with the game.

Navigating Through Tackles, Rucks, Mauls, and Scrums

Understanding the core aspects of contact in rugby, such as rugby tackling rules, rugby rucks, rugby mauls, and rugby scrums, is fundamental for players and fans alike. Mastering these elements is not only about gaining a competitive edge but it’s also crucial for player safety and adhering to the spirit of the game.

Executing and Defending Against Tackles

In rugby, tackling rules dictate that a player must safely bring down an opponent by wrapping their arms around the ball carrier and bringing them to the ground. It’s a technique that requires precision and respect for opponent’s safety, and when done incorrectly, it can lead to penalties and even injury.

A well-executed tackle in rugby not only halts the advance of the opposing team but also sets the stage for a ruck or maul, where the real battle for possession begins.

The Dynamics of Rucks and Mauls

Rucks form when one or more players from both teams come together over the ball, which is on the ground. At this juncture, players vie for possession using their feet. Mauls, conversely, occur when a player carrying the ball is held by an opponent, and more players bind on the ball carrier without the ball touching the ground.

  • Rugby rucks and mauls are integral to the game’s continuity, demanding a synthesis of strategy, strength, and technique.
  • The complexities of rucks and mauls test team cohesion and individual resilience under the pressure of the contest for possession.

Both rucks and mauls are instrumental to the flow of the game, and understanding how to engage in these safely and effectively is part of rugby’s strategic charm.

Rugby scrums, another pillar of the game, are tactical set pieces triggered by minor infractions. This contest involves eight players from each team who bind together in a test of collective strength, with the aim to gain possession of the ball. The coordination and physicality of scrums often define the momentum of a rugby match.

Element Definition Purpose in Game
Rugby Tackles Player wraps arms around ball carrier and brings them down. To stop the opposing player’s advance and regain possession.
Rugby Rucks Formed around the ball on the ground, players use feet for possession. To continue play after a tackle and fight for the ball while on their feet.
Rugby Mauls Occurs with the ball in hand, players bind and move toward the goal line. For the offensive team to protect possession and gain ground.
Rugby Scrums Contest between packs following a minor stoppage. To restart play and contend for ball possession safely.

Dealing with Penalties and Infringements

Navigating the complexities of rugby penalties is a necessary skill for players and officials alike, ensuring that the game’s competitive spirit is upheld while preserving the safety and integrity of all involved.

Common Rugby Penalties and Their Consequences

Penalties in rugby are sanctions for infractions of the rules, with varying degrees of severity depending on the nature of the foul play. They serve as a deterrent to unsafe or unfair conduct that could mar the sport’s ethos. Whether a player engages in a high tackle, which contacts an opponent above the line of shoulders, or is guilty of reckless rugby foul play, such as tripping or striking an opponent, each infringement has corresponding consequences designed to dissuade recurrence.

Referees are vigilant in identifying and penalizing foul play, emphasizing the sport’s commitment to fair competition and player welfare.

Penalty Type Definition Consequence
Offside Player is ahead of the ball or a teammate who last played it Penalty kick to opposing team
High Tackle Tackle above the shoulders, risking head and neck injury Penalty kick, potential card depending on severity
Foul Play Dangerous or unsportsmanlike behavior Disciplinary card (yellow or red), suspensions

Understanding the Offside Rule in Rugby

The offside law in rugby is central to maintaining a fair and level playing field. A player is deemed offside if they are in front of the ball—this prevents them from partaking in active play and is designed to keep gameplay flowing and competitive for both teams. Recognizing when one is in an offside position and retreating to an onside position is as strategic as it is reflexive, demanding a keen awareness of the game’s ebb and flow.

Offside infractions lead to penalties that not only interrupt the infringing team’s momentum but also give the opposing team a chance to advance, either through territory or the opportunity to score. Rugby’s devotion to fair play is embodied in the rigorous enforcement of rugby offside laws.

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Understanding the intricacies of these rules and the consistency of their application are what allow the game of rugby to be as dynamic and thrilling as it is, affording a seamless spectacle of sportsmanship where respect for the rules is just as important as physical prowess and tactical acumen.

Advanced Play: Strategies and Set Pieces

In the high-stakes realm of rugby, the utilization of rugby strategies becomes pivotal in outmaneuvering the opposition. Employing advanced rugby tactics can dramatically alter the outcome of a match, often tipping the balance in favor of those with meticulous prep and execution. These tactical plays, known as rugby set pieces, are among the most critical components of a team’s strategic arsenal, requiring not only physical strength but also a high level of coordination and intellectual prowess.

During these set pieces, teams come together in a display of unity and tactical awareness, often setting the stage for some of the most exciting and decisive moments in rugby. These moments, from scrums to lineouts, can capitalize on an opponent’s vulnerabilities or strengthen a team’s position on the pitch. The success of these set pieces lies in their precise execution, relying on the collective effort of every player involved.

Typically, scrums and lineouts demand a higher level of engagement and understanding between players, making them a central focus during team trainings. A scrum, for instance, requires the eight forwards to bind together and push against the opposing team, fighting for control of the ball in a test of strength and technique. The science behind a successful scrum extends beyond mere brawn; it is also about positioning, timing, and the art of anticipation.

Lineouts are another aspect where rugby’s intellectual nature shines. Teams must choose their best jumpers and develop a series of codes and signals to outwit their opponents. Variations of the lineout can include quick throws or intricate movements designed to secure possession and initiate an immediate attack.

  • Scrums: Symmetric power displays used to gain ball possession.
  • Lineouts: Complex aerial battles that require intelligent signaling and precise execution.
  • Strategic Kicking: Utilizing space on the field to apply pressure or regain territory.
  • Ruck Tactics: Rapidly securing ball possession after a tackle has been made.

As teams develop and refine their advanced rugby tactics, the role of the coach becomes ever more crucial. It is the coach’s duty to craft these strategies, drawing on their knowledge of the team’s strengths and the enemy’s weaknesses. On-field leaders, such as the fly-half and the scrum-half, then take on the responsibility of implementing these plays under the reactive conditions of live gameplay.

“The apex of rugby strategy is seen in the immaculate timing of a set piece that turns defense into offense, chaos into structure, and contest into victory.”

Through the employment of advanced set plays and strategies, a rugby team orchestrates more than just a match; they perform a calculated ballet of power, speed, and intellect that, when perfected, is nothing short of sporting artistry. These tactics are essential for teams aspiring to dominate not only in their region but on the global stage, where every detail of their game will be scrutinized and challenged.


Embarking on the journey of learning rugby can be as thrilling as the game itself, and this comprehensive guide serves as a crucial companion in that pursuit. With the rugby rules summarized succinctly and contextually within this article, both beginners and seasoned fans gain the knowledge to engage with rugby more deeply. Understanding the dynamics of scrums, the precision required for a successful drop goal, or the strategic advantage of a well-executed maul enriches the appreciation of this dynamic sport.

For those new to the game, this article has been a foundational resource, illustrating rugby for beginners in accessible terms. Each section has contributed to demystifying the sport, illuminating the intricacies of gameplay, and enhancing the repertoire of knowledge for any aspiring player or devoted spectator. The various dimensions of rugby—from the fundamental rules to the complex strategies and set pieces—are presented to facilitate a more profound understanding and enjoyment of the game.

Ultimately, learning rugby is about immersing oneself in the passion and community that the sport fosters worldwide. As spectators or players delve into the depths of the game’s regulations and strategies, they join a culture steeped in tradition, respect, and competitive excellence. Regardless of personal expertise or familiarity with rugby, access to detailed and clear guidance is invaluable for anyone wishing to experience the fullness of this glorious sport. This guide stands as a testament to that endeavor, inviting all to discover the richness that rugby has to offer.


What are the main differences between rugby union and rugby league?

The primary differences lie in the number of players and the set of rules each code follows. Rugby union features teams of 15 players with contests around the ball such as rucks and mauls being a key element. Rugby league has teams of 13 players and promotes a faster game with play-the-ball restarts after tackles.

How are points scored in rugby?

Points in rugby can be scored through tries, conversions, penalty kicks, and drop goals. A try, worth five points, is scored by grounding the ball in the opponent’s in-goal area. A conversion earned after a try is worth two points, while penalty kicks and drop goals are both worth three points.

What are the dimensions of a rugby field?

A rugby field is typically up to 100 meters long and 70 meters wide, with in-goal areas adding a minimum of 10 meters in depth at each end. Exact dimensions may vary slightly depending on the level of the game and the hosting facility.

What equipment is required to play rugby?

Players must wear a mouthguard and are encouraged to use protective equipment such as shoulder pads and scrum caps. Rugby boots with studs or cleats are also required for grip and stability on the pitch.

What are the key responsibilities of forwards and backs?

Forwards, wearing jerseys numbered 1-8, are primarily responsible for winning and maintaining possession through physical confrontations such as scrums, rucks, and mauls. Backs, wearing jerseys numbered 9-15, are generally more fleet-footed and responsible for advancing the ball and trying to score through tactical plays and speed.

How long does a rugby match last?

A standard rugby match consists of two halves, each 40 minutes long, with a 10-minute half-time break. In knockout games, extra time may be played to determine a winner if needed.

How does a rugby match start?

A rugby match begins with a kickoff from the center of the field. The team kicking off must propel the ball at least 10 meters towards the opposing side. If it does not travel the required distance, the other team is awarded a scrum at the center.

Can you explain the advantage rule in rugby?

The advantage rule in rugby allows play to continue after an infraction if the non-infringing team gains a tactical advantage. The advantage can be territorial gain, a chance to score, or maintaining possession under favorable conditions.

What constitutes a legal tackle in rugby?

A legal tackle in rugby involves the tackler wrapping their arms around the ball carrier and bringing them to the ground safely. Tackles above the shoulders are considered dangerous and are penalized.

What happens during a ruck?

A ruck is formed when at least one player from each team come into contact over the ball on the ground. Players must enter the ruck from their side of the ball and cannot use their hands to play the ball; they must push against the opposing players to win possession.

What penalties can be awarded in rugby?

Penalties in rugby may be awarded for various infractions such as offside plays, not releasing the ball, entering a ruck from the side, high tackles, and many others. Consequences can range from the opposing team kicking for field position, taking a shot at goal, or being awarded a scrum.

What is the offside rule in rugby?

The offside rule in rugby states that a player is offside if they are in front of a teammate who last played the ball, unless they were part of a ruck, maul, scrum, or lineout. Players who are offside cannot take part in the game until they are put onside by the actions of their team or opponents.

How important are set pieces like scrums and lineouts in rugby?

Set pieces like scrums and lineouts are critical for restarting play, gaining possession, and creating opportunities to attack or secure the ball. They require strategic planning and coordinated team effort and can be very influential in determining the outcome of a game.

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